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Page 349 of RONR permits an assembly, upon clear and convincing evidence, to retroactively declare action taken at a prior meeting null and void due to the absence of a quorum. Situation: At the first meeting on the first day of a two day convention, the chair finds that a quorum is present when the meeting is called to order. Later in the meeting a motion was adopted. No point of order was raised about the possible absence of a quorum. The meeting later adjourned without anyone having questioned the validity of the motion which had been adopted or the presence of a quorum at any point during the meeting. At the second meeting, which was on day two of the two day convention, a point of order was made immediately after calling the meeting to order that a quorum was not present. The chair ruled the point of order well taken and ruled that a quorum was not present. Someone then made a point of order that there was no quorum present at the previous day's meeting and that the motion adopted at that previous meeting was null and void. The chair agreed and ruled the motion from the previous day's meeting null and void. No point of order was raised and no one appealed from that ruling. The convention then adjourned sine die. Questions: 1. At the the second meeting, which was without a quorum, did the chair have the authority to declare that the motion from the previous day's meeting was null and void as having been adopted when no quorum was present? 2. What is the status/validity of that ruling by the chair? 3. Does the adopted motion from the first meeting still stand as validly adopted or has it been validly ruled null and void? 4. In essence, my question is whether a ruling that prior action is null and void must be made at a properly called meeting at which a quorum is present in order for the chair to retroactively declare, on a point of order, that action taken at a prior meeting is null and void due to the absence of a quorum at the time it was adopted.